Max Mittel

Max Mittel

Streugasse – 47

Owner 1932:  Max Mittel

Markus (1875), who later called himself Max, lived together with his wife Kuni and his younger brother Selmar in the same place. Max was a cattle trader and later moved into the home of Bernhard Lustig (house no.49), Selmar was a tradesman.
Max emigrated with his six children, Wilhelm, Frieda, Rosa, Lotte, Selmar  and Walter, 1939 via Havanna into the USA.
Selmar ́s daughter Susie already left in 1934 for New York. Her parents followed as late as 1938 with son Herbert via Havanna to the USA.


Josef Mittel

Josef Mittel


Owner 1932: Josef Mittel

Josef Mittel (1888) acquired the property with the vinegar factory as dowry of his wife Fanny (1891) Liebenthal. Her uncle Hermann (1855-1910) bought the vinegar factory from Heinemann and Sophie Rose in 1897 at the price of 12000 Mark, because they had moved to Meiningen. Josef Mittel managed the business together with his brother Theo, who lived in the main street no. 108. To differentiate this family from the many other Mittel families they have been called Essig (=vinegar)-Mittel.

Besides the fabrication of vinegar also spirits and liqueurs have been produced as is shown in the advertisement.  After the brothers left Unsleben 1939 via Havanna to the USA the business was taken over by the Fa. Hügelschäfer, Sommerhausen, which carried on the production. Josef Mittel together with his wife had four children: Ruth, Käte, Edith and Günther.  Ruth went to Rio, Käte to Palestine and Edith and Günther emigrated with their parents via Havanna to the USA. Edith made sculptures. At a meeting she told, that during the night of the pogrom she hided in the hay loft. Her father has been hidden by his workers in an empty wine barrel. The recipes for the liqueurs have not been transferred to Hügelschäfer by her father and uncle.



Emanuel Mittel

Emanuel Mittel


Owner 1932: Emanuel Mittel

Emanuel Mittel(1869) was a cattle trader. He emigrated with his wife Rinetta(1875), son Rudolf(1906) and daughter Hannelore(1922) in 1939 to the USA via Havanna.

In the same home lived Selli Mittel(1903), a tradesman, with his wife Martha(1910) and children Susie and Herbert(1938). Susie emigrated already in 1934 to the USA.The remaining familiy followed in 1938 via Havanna to the USA.



Sophie Mittel

Sophie Mittel


Owner 1932: Sophie Mittel

Sophie Mittel (1855) was a teacher`s widow, who died in Unsleben in 1935. Her husband (1846) was teacher in the Jewish school of Unsleben from 1868 until 1905. He died in 1915 and has been buried in the Unsleben cemetery, but he grave cannot be found or be identified with certainty. The only child Siegfried already died in 1876 at baby age.

Gabriel Kuhl

Gabriel Kuhl

Schlossgasse – 19

Owner 1932: Gabriel Kuhl

Gabriel Kuhl was a butcher. He and his wife Hannchen died in the thirties in Unsleben and are buried in the cemetery there.

The house was taken over by his son Richard (1891) and his family. Richard was also butcher and did kosher butchering. He together with his wife Frieda (1892) and the children Klara (1922), Leo (1949 and Hermann (1933) have been deported in 1942 via Würzburg to Izbica.

The house was then taken over by Erwin Bardroff who in his active life was working in the nearby granary of the Naumann family. In his late years he functioned as a housekeeper for the synagogue.

Geschwister Liebenthal

Geschwister Liebenthal

171 Hauptstrase

Owner 1932: Geschwister Liebenthal

The villa for four families has been built 1928 as the second new building by Jews, after about 100 years earlier Männlein Donnerstag had built his home, the so called Donnerstaghaus (house no. 75+76).

Fritz Liebenthal (1905), the youngest of the Liebenthal children was still single, he was one of the three personally liable associates of Fa. Zschökel. The firm had an active export to the USA. He evetently alreay in the middle of the 1930ties had visited the USA. Probably therefor he was able in 1939 directly enter the USA.

Heinrich Liebenthal (1897) was married to Anny Neuhaus (1908), they had a daughter Elisabeth(1930). Heinrich was one of the three personally liable associates of the firm Zschökel. All his brothers and sister Toni as well as her husband Max Moritz have been employed by the firm, but evidently he was the main responsible person. The firm has been founded in 1892 in Leipzig, most probably by his uncle Josef or has been taken over by him. They produced electrotechnical devices, e.g. door bells, transmitters. Josef died without having children. In the context of his business education Heinrich spent already one year (1913) in the firm in Leipzig. In 1914 the firm has been transferred to Unsleben. In the 1930ties the firm employed 37 workers. The firm had plenty of export orders and therefore was an important economic factor. As a Jewish firm it was a thorn in the side of the Nazis and should be Aryanized as soon as possible. A starting point was a tax control 1936. Because of an expected tax evasion the president of the inland­revenue office asked for arresting Heinrich, Otto and Fritz Liebenthal. On 14.12.1936 the tax case was declared as finished and the reason for arresting without support, nevertheless the prisoners have been sent on Dec. 17, 1936 to the concentration camp in Dachau. A 12­page letter of an attorney send to the Gestapo of München should witness the emptiness and incompatible act of continued arresting. Maybe the letter has been forwarded to Berlin. In any case on 22.2.1937 a personal decision of the RFSS (Reichsfüher SS, Heinrich Himmler) came from Berlin that the prisoners have to be released.

During the pogrom night Heinrich and his brother­in­law happened to be in Meiningen. The day after they reported at the police, but their absentence from Unsleben has been looked at as an escape and therefor they have been sent to the KZ Buchenwald. Now it was important for the NSDAP, that the firm be Aryanized as soon as possible, because parts of the Liebenthal family had already emigrated. Therefor Heinrich was requested to come free in order to sign the contract of transition of the firm attested by a notary. So the firm was taken over by Hans Hahn and Karl Bittorf and has been carried on by them. They also moved with their families into the villa. Heinrich L. emigrated with his family on April 29, 1939 via Havanna to the USA. After the war the Liebenthal reclaimed their firm and property and carried on with the help of an administrator, but in the 1970ties they sold their property. A last visit of Heinrich ́s daughter Elisabeth with husband, her daughter and son­in­law took place in July 2001.

Julius Liebenthal (1893) was married to Tilly(1901) and they had two boys, Adolf(1924) and Erich(1927). They lived like all the young Liebenthal families in the villa, which has been built in 1928, as the second new building erected by Jews about 100 years after the first one by Männlein Donnerstag (house no. 75+76). Julius has been told to be blind and therefor also not a personal liable associate of the firm. Julius Liebenthal emigrated with his family in 1939 via Havanna to the USA.

Max Moriz (1889) was the husband of Toni Liebenthal (1896), a sister of the four Liebenthal brothers. Both were employed in Fa.Zschökel. They had three children, Adolf (1923), Kurt (1924) and Ilse (1928). The family emigrated on 27.4.1939 to Chile.

Otto Liebenthal (1894) was one of the three personally liable associates of the Fa. Zschökel. He was married to Nelly (1900), they had two girls, Grete (1926) and Alice (1930). Otto was together with Heinrich and Fritz in 1936 in the concentration camp Dachau. He emigrated with his family immediately after the progrom night via Havanna to the USA.